The history of northwestern India – the region containing modern Rajasthan, Delhi and Agra – has played a influential role in the development of the Subcontinent. South Asia’s first great civilization developed in the valley of the Indus river, just west of Rajasthan in what is now Pakistan, and the region was also the first to experience the blow of the endless waves of invaders who swept down from the muntains of Central Asia into the Subcontinent over the following centuries. These invaders – ranging from the first Indo-Aryans through consecutive waves of Greeks, Persians, Huns, Scythians, Parthians, Afghans, Mongols and Mughals – each facilitated shape the history, culture and ethnic make-up of the region, sometimes in ways which are now so buried in the past that they have become almost impossible to decipher.

Rajasthan, though for much of its subsequent history the region has remained somewhat isolated and thoughtful, protected by its expanses of desert and rocky fortresses and enjoying a political and physical separation which has advanced the development of one of India’s most colourful and staunchly Hindu cultures.

Ancient Period (upto 1200 AD)
From about 700 AD, various Rajput families emerged and held their way over different parts of Rajasthan. Before that, Rajasthan was a part of numerous republics. Major republics that subjugated this province include the Mauryan Empire, Malavas,  Yaudhyas, Arjunyas, Kushans, Guptas, Saka Satraps, and Hunas. 
During the period from eighth to twelfth century AD there was Rajput clans’ dominance in Indian history. Majority of northern India including Rajasthan was ruled by the Pratihars during 750-1000 AD. Rajasthan witnessed the struggle for dominance between Chauhans, Chalukyas, and Parmars during 1000-1200 AD.
Medieval Period (1201-1707 AD)
A part of Rajasthan was under the control of Muslim rulers around 1200 AD. The chief centers of their authority were Ajmer, Nagaur and Ranthanbhor. At the beginning of the 13th century AD, the most well-known and powerful state of Rajasthan was Mewar. 
Modern Period (1707 – 1947 AD)
The great Mughal Emperor created a unified territory of Rajasthan but Mughal power started to decline after 1707. The political crumbling of Rajasthan was caused by the dismemberment of the Mughal Empire and it was penetrated by the Marathas upon the decline of the Mughal Empire. In 1755 they (Marathas) occupied Ajmer. The start of the 19th Century was manifested by the assault of the Pindaris. 
In 1817-18 it had begun the British rule over Rajasthan as British Government accomplished settlement of alliance with nearly all the states of Rajputana.

Post Independence Era (1947-Present)
The former Rajputana encompassed 19 substantial states and 2 chief ships of Kushalgarh, Lava and a British controlled province of Ajmer-Merwara (Merwara-Ajmer). The state of Rajastan was a varied accumulation of different political bodies with different systems of administration existing in separate places.

The current Rajasthani state was formed after a long process of incorporation which began on 17th March 1948 and ended on 1st November 1956. Before this integration it was known as Rajputana and after the integration it came to known as Rajasthan. Currently there are 33 districts in the State.